Ophthalmia Neonatorium in Dogs
Puppies can develop infections of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and the eyeball, or of the cornea, the transparent front surface coating of the eyeball. The infection will typically take place after the top and bottom eyelids separate and open, at about 10 to 14 days of age.
Often the source of the infection is from infectious vaginal discharge that is transmitted at birth, but an unhygienic environment can also lead to infection in newborns. Staphylococcus spp. bacteria, or Streptococcus spp. bacteria are usually responsible for infections in puppies. If left untreated, infections of this nature can lead to blindness.
Symptoms and Types
- Eye may develop conjunctivitis, with inflammation, redness, and discharge of the conjunctiva
- Upper and lower eyelids are stuck together due to dried and crusted discharge
- Eyelids are sticking to the front of the eye
- Discharge from the eyes that is puslike, or has mucous (clear fluid) with some pus
- Upper and lower eyelids bulge outward due to swelling and/or fluid build-up in the socket or orbit
- Ulcerated cornea (sores on the surface of the eyeball where bacteria has eaten holes through the coating)
- Collapsed eyeball
- Vaginal infections in the dam (mother dog) near the time of birth
- Unclean environment for the newborn puppies
Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical exam on the affected newborns, and will need a complete medical history of the pregnancy and birth, as well as a background medical history of the mother that has given birth. If your adult pet, the mother, has had any infections that you are aware of, you will need to share information of the symptoms and the time they began with the doctor. Even if there has not been any indication of infection in the mother, if the symptoms the newborn is presenting appear to be the type of infection that is transmitted through the birth canal, your veterinarian will need to take a culture of vaginal discharge from the mother.
A culture of the eye discharge will also need to be taken for testing, and in order to fully examine the eye for possible trauma or lesions, your doctor will stain the cornea (the coating of the eye) with fluorescein, a fluorescent yellow-orange dye that illuminates the corneal surface, making even minute scratches and foreign objects visible under light.
Your doctor may also order a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, a urinalysis, and an electrolyte panel, in case the newborn has an underlying systemic disease that also needs to be treated.