Aspiration Pneumonia in Ferrets
Aspiration (or inhalation) pneumonia is a medical condition in which the ferret's lungs become inflamed due to the inhalation of foreign matter, or from vomiting or the regurgitation of gastric acid contents. Aspiration pneumonia can also be a direct result of a neuromuscular disorder, which would cause difficulty with swallowing, as well as problems associated with the esophagus, with possible paralysis of the esophagus.
Symptoms and Types
Symptoms of aspiration pneumonia in ferrets may be immediately apparent (acute), or may develop over a long-term period of time (chronic). Signs can include weakness, sluggishness in the rear limbs, nasal discharge, fever, raspy breathing, bluish tinge to the skin (cyanosis), and an unusually rapid heart beat (tachypnea).
A common cause of aspiration pneumonia is an obstruction of the esophagus, the tube connecting the pharynx and stomach. Other causes include metabolic disturbances (such as hypoglycemia), an improperly placed feeding tube, and an altered state of consciousness (for example, if the animal is sedated for surgery).
There are two primary procedures used to diagnose aspiration pneumonia: a tracheal wash and a bronchoscopy. A tracheal wash, which involves a collection of the fluids and substances lining the trachea (a respiratory airway), can collect bacterial cultures for analysis. A bronchoscopy, in which a small tube with a tiny camera attached is inserted into the mouth and led into the bronchial airway, may be done to check for objects obstructing the airways. A bronchoscopy can also be used to collect airway samples or remove foreign bodies blocking the airway. Other diagnostic procedures include urine analysis and chest and lung X-rays.