Poisonous liver-toxic mushrooms include:
- Amanita phalloides (Death Cap Mushroom)
- Amanita ocreata (Angel of Death)
- Lepiota (False Parasol)
Mushrooms that present the greatest threat for dogs are what veterinarians refer to as liver-toxic mushrooms. “The most dangerous species of mushrooms contain hepatotoxic cyclopeptides, such as amatoxins (the most toxic), phallotoxins, and virotoxins,” says Good. Species that contain these toxins include Amanita phalloides, known as the Death Cap or Death Angel, Amanita ocreata also referred to as the Angel of Death, the Lepiota or False Parasol and Galerina, which are small nondescript, brown mushrooms that grow in mossy or forested areas after a heavy rain. “This class of mushroom is responsible for the vast majority of both human and pet fatalities worldwide,” says Good.
These species of mushrooms are especially dangerous, because not only do they attack a major organ, but you won’t see signs for several hours after ingestion. “In people, who have accidentally ingested these mushrooms, you can do a liver transplant, but we don’t do those in dogs,” shares Wismer. “We can support them and try to protect the liver, but typically if the symptoms persist for two to three days after exposure, it’s too late.”
Some of these liver-toxic amanita mushrooms are common in areas of California, but can be found in others locations across the U.S. too. If your dog is brought to the vet right after ingesting the mushroom, veterinarians may induce vomiting and use activated charcoal to bind the toxins to stop them from being absorbed.