Dogs’ Eyes Can Tell You About Their Health
One of the easiest health issues to detect through the eyes is liver disease. "With severe liver disease, a secondary condition occurs where there is retention of bile," Goldstein says. "This is commonly known as jaundice and probably the easiest place to detect this condition is a yellowing of the whites of the eyes."
On the other hand, a very pale sclera (the white outer layer of the eye) can be a sign of anemia from an abdominal bleed or kidney disease, according to Ryder.
In dogs, changes in the size of the pupil can also indicate a serious medical problem. "The pupils can be small when there is pain in the eye," Ryder says. "And two different sized pupils can be present with head trauma." The presence of blood in the space between the cornea and pupil can also indicate trauma or potentially rodenticide poisoning (rat bait).
A cloudy eye can indicate the presence of protein or white blood cells. "This can be secondary to trauma, infection, auto-immune disease, cancer (lymphoma especially), diabetes, and many other conditions," Ryder says.