Fanconi Syndrome in Dogs
Fanconi syndrome is a collection of abnormalities arising from the defective transport of water, sodium, potassium, glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, and amino acids from the kidneys; impaired tubular reabsorption, the process by which solutes and water are removed from the tubular fluid and transported into the blood, causes excessive urinary excretion of these solutes.
Approximately 75 percent of the reported cases have occurred in the Basenji breed; estimates of the prevalence within the Basenji breed in North America range from 10–30 percent. It is presumed to be an inherited trait in this breed, but the mode of inheritance is unknown.
Idiopathic (unknown cause) Fanconi syndrome has been reported sporadically in several different breeds, including border terriers, Norwegian elkhounds, whippets, Yorkshire terriers, Labrador retrievers, Shetland sheepdogs, and mixed-breed dogs. Age at diagnosis ranges from 10 weeks to 11 years, with most affected dogs developing clinical signs from about two to four years. There is no gender predilection.
Symptoms and Types
Symptoms vary depending on the severity of specific solute losses, and whether renal failure has developed.
- Excessive urination (polyuria)
- Excessive thirst (polydipsia)
- Reduced appetite
- Weight loss
- Poor body condition
- Reduced and/or abnormal growth (rickets) in young, growing animals
- Inherited in most cases, particularly in Basenjis
- Acquired Fanconi syndrome has been reported in dogs treated with gentamicin (antibiotic), streptozotocin (chemical used to treat cancer), and amoxicillin (antibiotic)
- Also reported secondary to primary hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid glands)
Your veterinarian will conduct a complete blood profile, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis to test levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, and amino acids. An analysis of blood gases will also probably be used to determine whether the kidneys are functioning normally with regards to absorption. You will need to give a thorough history of your pet's health, and onset of symptoms.
Avoid drugs that are nephrotoxic (toxic to the kidney), or have the potential to cause Fanconi syndrome (see causes).