By Dr. Jennifer Coates, DVM
When dogs are having severe problems breathing, veterinarians will first perform any procedures necessary to stabilize their condition. If your dog is having difficulty breathing, this is what you can expect to happen next:
- Medication: Your veterinarian may prescribe any of a number of medications (e.g., bronchodilators or diuretics) depending on the underlying cause of your dog’s breathing difficulty.
- Surgery: Surgical procedures, like those that drain fluid from around the lungs, may be necessary in some cases.
- Diet: Special diets may be prescribed, particularly if heart disease is the cause of a dog’s problems breathing.
What to Expect at the Vet’s Office
Your dog may be put on supplemental oxygen or undergo a chest tap if fluid within the chest cavity is making it hard for the lungs to expand.
Once your dog’s condition is stable, the veterinarian will need to determine what disease or disorder is making it difficult for your dog to breathe. He or she will start with a physical examination and complete health history, often followed by some combination of diagnostic tests.
- A blood chemistry panel
- Complete blood cell count
- Serology to rule in or out various infectious diseases
- Chest x-rays
- Echocardiography (an ultrasound of the heart)
- Measurement of blood pressure
- An electrocardiogram (ECG)
- An examination of fluid samples taken from the airways or around the lungs
Appropriate treatment will depend on the results of these tests and the eventual diagnosis. Some of the more common disorders that make it hard for dogs to breathe include:
Heart Disease — Veterinarians will usually prescribe some combination of medications that make the heart pump more efficiently, normalize blood pressure, and reduce the abnormal build-up of fluid (e.g., pimobendan, enalapril, or furosemide).
Infections — Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites can all infect a dog’s upper respiratory tract, lung tissue (pneumonia), airways (bronchitis), or a combination thereof (e.g., bronchopneumonia). Antibiotics are effective only against bacteria. Other medications are available that work against some types of fungi and parasites. Supportive care is the most important part of treating viral infections.
Heartworm Disease — Heartworms are passed from dog to dog through mosquito bites and cause potentially fatal damage to the heart and lungs. Heartworm disease is easily prevented but costly and often difficult to treat.
Cancer — Lung and other types of cancer can make it difficult for dogs to breathe. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or palliative therapy.
Collapsing Trachea — Small dogs are at risk for a weakening of the cartilage rings that normally hold the trachea open. Medications that dilate airways, decrease inflammation and coughing, and treat secondary infections can help but in severe cases, surgery may be necessary
Trauma — Injuries can lead to bleeding in or around the lungs, broken ribs, collapsed lungs, and more. Rest, pain relief, symptomatic/supportive care (e.g., blood transfusions and oxygen therapy), and sometimes surgery is necessary if a dog is to recover.
Pleural Effusion — Fluid (blood, lymph, pus, etc.) or gas can collect around the lungs and needs to be removed via a chest tap, chest tube placement, or surgery.
Chronic Bronchitis — Medications that decrease inflammation (e.g., fluticasone or prednisolone) and dilate airways (e.g., albuterol or terbutaline) can be given, ideally by inhalation to reduce side effects but also systemically if necessary.
Obstructions — Foreign material within the airways can make it hard for dogs to breathe and must be removed either surgically or using an endoscope.
Brachycephalic Syndrome — Some flat-faced dogs suffer have anatomical abnormalities that affect their upper airways and can obstruct breathing. Surgery can often partially correct these abnormalities.
Laryngeal Paralysis — Dogs with laryngeal paralysis cannot fully open the passage into their windpipe. Surgery can help ease their breathing but puts them at higher risk for developing aspiration pneumonia.
Obesity — Extra body fat can make it hard for dogs to breathe and worsens may of the conditions mentioned above. Weight loss is an important part of treatment in these cases.
What to Expect At Home
Supportive care is an important part of helping dogs recover from conditions that make it hard for them to breathe. They need to be closely monitored and encouraged to eat, drink, and rest. When dogs are taking medications to treat an infectious disease (e.g., antibiotics), they should take the entire course, even if their condition appears to be back to normal before the end. Follow your veterinarian’s instructions regarding any other medications that have been prescribed.
Questions to Ask Your Vet
Some causes of difficulty breathing in dogs can be contagious to other dogs, pets, or even people. Ask your veterinarian if you need to take any precautions to prevent the spread of disease to others in your home.
Ask your veterinarian what the possible side effects are of the medications your dog is taking. Find out when he or she next wants to see your dog for a progress check and whom you should call if an emergency arises outside of your veterinarian’s normal business hours.
Possible Complications to Watch For
Talk to your veterinarian if you have any questions or concerns about your dog’s condition.
- Some dogs who take medications can develop side effects such as loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, increased thirst/urination, etc. Make sure you understand what your dog’s reaction to any prescribed medications should be.
- It is possible for a dog to appear to be on the road to recovery and then suffer a setback. If your dog becomes weaker, has to work harder to breath, coughs more, or develops a blue tinge to the mucous membranes, call your veterinarian immediately.
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