Gingivostomatitis and Caudal Stomatitis in Cats
Gingivostomatitis and caudal stomatitis are painful inflammatory conditions seen in the gums and mouth of cats. Gingivostomatitis refers to swelling of the gums, while caudal stomatitis refers to a specific site of swelling inside the mouth. Purebred cats are predisposed to this condition.
Symptoms and Types
Symptoms of gingivostomatitis and caudal stomatitis include chronic bad breath, an unhealthy scruff and/or coat of hair, excessive drooling (pytalism), and difficulty swallowing. Full or partial loss of appetite (anorexia), often seen in the avoidance of hard foods, and weight loss are also a common effect due to these painful symptoms. Other signs include painful lesions on the gums and inflammation that completely surrounds the tooth. This swelling may also extend to the palate.
While the exact causes of gingivostomatitis and caudal stomatitis are unknown. However, it is suspected that the inflammation is caused by a reaction of the immune system to a bacteria or virus. Feline Calici virus (FCV), a virus that commonly causes respiratory infections in cats, has been found to be a possible cause for gingivostomatitis and caudal stomatitis.
The use of X-rays to evaluate gum disease and lesions can be used to reveal how advanced the condition is and, after treatment through tooth extraction, how successful the treatment has been. A urine test may also reveal heightened levels of the plasma protein globulin in cats affected by gingivostomatitis and caudal stomatitis. A biopsy may be given to rule out tumors or cancer as the cause of symptoms.