Cytauxzoonosis in Cats
Cytauxzoonosis is a parasitic infection of the blood vessels of the cat's lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain. The protozoan parasite Cytauxzoon felis can also infect bone marrow and the developmental stages of red blood cells, thereby causing anemia. An uncommon disease, cytauxzoonosis typically affects feral and domestic cats in the south-central and southeastern United States.
Symptoms and Types
Symptoms associated with cytauxzoonosis are usually severe, including:
- High fever
- Pale gums
- Loss of appetite (anorexia)
- Yellowish skin (jaundice)
- Enlarged abdomen due to splenomegaly and hepatomegaly
The parasite is transmitted from the bite of an infected ixodid tick, which are known to roam in areas shared by reservoir hosts like the bobcat and Florida panther.
You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health to your veterinarian, including the onset and nature of the symptoms. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination as well as a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and electrolyte panel.
The bloodwork will typically reflect changes due to severe anemia caused by a combination of red cell membrane destruction (hemolysis) and hemorrhaging. In addition, the blood smear may reveal the erythrocytic form of the parasite, which is one to two micrometres in diameter, inside the red blood cells.
Splenic and bone marrow aspirate, meanwhile, are best used to identify to demonstrate the extraerythrocytic form of the parasite.