A. This is likely a behavioral response. It could also be territorial, but always when there is a urinating issue, a health check should be done to rule out a medical cause, as cats are very prone to urine crystals and bladder stones. I would recommend keeping his box very clean. I would also maybe try changing the type of box (covered to uncovered or vice versa). Some cats need the covered box to help contain their mess but others will mark the outside of it to let others know the entrance to that box belongs to them. I would be curious to know if you have other cats... As a rule of thumb you should have 1 litter box/cat plus 1 as extra.
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