breed

S

sable

A type of color on an animal; has a cream coat with black on the feet, tail, and face

saccule

A small sac found on the inside of the ear; has a great deal to do with balance

sacculectomy

The removal of a sac-like body part by surgical means

sacrum

The fourth in a sequence of fused vertebrae near the pelvis and the spinal cord

saddle gall

A type of wound on a horse that has resulted from the use of a saddle

saddle sore

A type of abrasion found on the back of a horse who has not been properly fitted with a saddle; may also indicate a sore on the rider due to the chafing caused by the saddle

sagittal plane

A line (imaginary) that divides an animal’s body into right and left; does not have to be an equal line.

sarcoma

A type of neoplasm that occurs in connective tissue

sarcous

Anything having to do with flesh or muscle

satiety

The term used to refer to a lack of desire to eat or have water

scapula

The bone in the pectoral that moves with the humerus; the shoulder blade

scent gland

A gland found in the base of a snake’s tail used to secrete their scent

scirrhous cord

Has to do with an animal who has been castrated; refers to the swelling of the end of the spermatic cord and happens due to an infection.

sclera

The outer layer of the eye that helps it to keep its round shape; the eye white.

sclera injection

The process of dilating the blood vessels in the sclera

scleritis

The medical condition that occurs when the sclera becomes irritated or inflamed

scolex

The part of a tapeworm that allows it to hold fast to its host

scrotal hydrocele

A cyst in the testicles; often filled with fluids

scrotum

The sac that holds the testes; may also be referred to as the scrotal sac

scurfy

Term used to refer to something that is covered in small scales

scurs

A type of horn that grows from the part of the skin where the horn would be on polled animals

scurvy

The term used to indicate a deficiency of Vitamin C

sebaceous cyst

A sac of fat; cysts are enclosed

sebaceous gland

A gland in the skin that is known to secrete oil (sebum)

seborrhea

A condition of the skin in which too much oil (sebum) is produced

sebum

A type of oil produced by the skin

secretin

A type of hormone that is produced in the intestine; it helps to control certain processes in the pancreas

secretion

The oozing or liberation of oil or liquid from cells or glands of living things

secundines

The placenta; the afterbirth of an animal

sedative

A type of drug that is known to calm an animal or put it to sleep

seizure

An involuntary action in which the muscles contract; caused by a problem with the brain.

selective breeding

The process of breeding certain plants or animals for a desirable characteristic or set of characteristics that they possess.

selenium

An element found in trace amounts in soil; closely related to sulfur

selenodont

The term used to refer to an animal that has a crescent on the grinding surface of their teeth; ruminant animals are a good example.

semen

The white fluid produced by males in the testicles for reproduction

seminal vesicle

A gland that helps to create semen; it empties into the vas deferens

seminiferous tubes

Tubes inside the testes through which semen travels

semipermeable membrane

A membrane that is used in the diffusion of certain solutions but not others; it lets in certain materials but prevents others from being able to come in.

sensitization

To be allergic to or sensitive to a certain vaccine or medication

sensorium

The sensory organs in the body, including those that deal with hearing, taste, touch, and smell

sensory neurons

Nerves that send impulses regarding sense to the spine.

separator

An apparatus used to separate milk and cream by spinning it; the centrifugal force divides the two.

sepsis

A medical condition; the contamination of a living thing by a harmful type of bacteria

septicemia

A condition of the blood in which micro-organisms or harmful toxins are present in the system

septum

A wall or partition that is designed to divide and separate

sequestrum

A piece of bone; may be fully attached or partially attached to the living bone.

serological

The term used to refer to certain lab tests that use liquid blood parts to detect disease

serology

The study of serum and the way it reacts to certain antigens

seroma

A condition in which serum collects underneath a surgical incision

serration

A type of border in which the edge is jagged or saw-like

sertoli cells

The term used to refer to those cells whose role is to support the growth of sperm in the testicles

serum neutralization

A type of test used with virus infections; tests for the presence of certain antibodies with the help of using serum and mixing it with certain viruses.

sesamoid

A bone; this bone may be found embedded in a tendon or some type of joint

setae

Types of bristles that grow atop the heads of certain species of bird; may be referred to simply as bristles

sexual dimorphism

The differences between members of each sex, including physical and behavioral differences

sexual infantilism

An instance in which an animal fails to mature fully when it comes to sexuality

shank

The calf area; the part of the body that connects the ankle and the knee

shedder

A brush that is used to take the dead hairs out of the coat of a given animal

shoat

The term for a pig between 60 and 160 pounds; may belong to either sex

shote

A young hog weighing less than 150 pounds.

side-bone

A medical condition in a horse’s foot; may also be referred to as shell bone.

sigmoid flexure

A fold in the penis of certain animals that is shaped like an S when flaccid and straightens out when the penis is erect.

sinoatrial node

A lump of tissue inside the right atrium; it helps to regulate the beat of the heart

sinus

A cavity within a bone; may also indicate a flow or channel

sinusitis

A medical condition; occurs when the sinus becomes inflamed

sinusotomy

An incision into a sinus

sire

The male parent of an offspring

sitomania

A craving of food, may relate to other medical conditions

sitting breed

A type of bird that broods once or twice each year

skeletal muscle

A muscle that is involved in voluntary movement

skewbald

A color of a horse’s coat; has to do with white spots on a colored coat (all except black)

skin tag

A growth on the skin that hangs from the body by a piece of skin

slipped tendon

A condition of birds caused by disruption in a nutritional plane; causes crippling

slobber

The term used for the saliva that drips from the mouth of an animal; may be due to excitement or medical reasons

slop

A type of wet feed that is made by the mixing of surplus dairy products and mill products, like crushed grain and skim milk; often fed to pigs

slow gallop

A type of gait in a horse; a canter.

smegma

A type of fatty substance that is often found in the sheath of male animals; may close off the passage of urine.

snaffle

A type of control of horses used when breaking them in for training

snood

The term used to refer to the flesh at the bottom of the beak of a turkey; may be called a dew bill.

snout

The term used for the area of the animal’s face that has the nose and jaws

somatic

Something that is used to refer to the tissues of the body

somatic cell count

The number of certain cells in milk; used to test for mastitis

sonogram

A picture of the internal body organs that is created by recording the pulses and echoes made by sound waves.

sow

An intact pig or guinea pig of the female sex.

spasticity

The contractions of skeletal muscles; involuntary

spavin

A type of disease that affects the rear legs of a horse; characterized by a type of growth on the leg

spay

To take the ovaries and uterus out of female animals; makes them unable to reproduce.

specific pathogen free

A system in which animals are birthed through C-section and raised away from other animals to prevent the spread of certain pathogens

speculum

A type of instrument used to make a body cavity or canal larger

sperm

The sex cell of male animals; created in the testicles

spermatic cord

The tissue that holds up the testicles and contains the vas deferens, nerves, and muscles of the male reproductive organs.

spermatocyte

One of the cells that are created in the male gamete.

spermatogenosis

The production of sperm cells in male animals

spermatogonium

The term for a type of cell that is used in the production of sperm in the testes.

spermatozoon

The term for the male sex cell; plural form of the word is spermatozoa

sphincter

A ring-shaped muscle that is used to close and open an opening

spinal

Anything having to do with the spine or vertebrae

spinal cavity

The space that holds the spinal cord inside the spinal column.

spindle

The term used to refer to the threads of protoplasm that are found within a given cell during mitosis.

spine

The vertebral column in an animal; the back bone.

spirochetes

Bacteria that is shaped like a spiral

spirometer

A type of instrument that measure the way that air flows into and out of the lungs

splayed

A fault in certain animals in which the front hooves are turned out and the heels point inward.

spleen

Tissue inside the abdomen; it helps to filter toxins out of the blood and stores red blood cells

splenectomy

A surgical procedure in which the spleen is removed.

splenomegaly

A condition in which the spleen becomes enlarged

splint

A type of instrument that is used to affix parts of the body that might normally move; used to promote healing.

spondylitis

A medical condition in which the vertebrae become inflamed

spondylosis

A condition in which the vertebrae degenerate; usually has to do with more than one vertebrae

sporadic disease

A type of disease that occurs in scattered cases

sporozoa

A type of protozoa; may be any of a number of types with varied life cycles.

sporozoite

A small stage of parasites, includes malaria, coccidian and others

spot treatment

The treatment of a certain chemical to an area where it is more heavily infected

spotter bull

A bull that is used to designate female cows who are in estrus; this bull is sterile

sprain

A strain of a joint; causes pain and swelling

spraying

The act of urinating on objects or areas as a method of marking territory

spreader

The term for an animal who has the ability to carry a disease or parasite

spring chicken

The term for a young chicken, usually only a few months old.

springing

Changes that occur in ruminant animals that give the indication that the time of birth is impending

sprite

The term for a ferret that has been spayed

sputum

The term used for phlegm that is ejected from the mouth; it is secreted in the lower respiratory tract

square gaited

The term used to refer to a horse whose gait is straight and on all four of its feet

stallion

A horse that is four years of age or older; a stallion is intact

stampede

A large rush of animals that occurs due to frightening of some kind

stanchion

A device that is fastened around a cow’s neck to make it easier to milk, feed, or perform a medical examination

staphylococci

A type of bacteria, round in shape

stapling

A means of sealing wound that involves steel staples as a method of closing an incision

stearic acid

A fatty acid that is used often in butter and other types of fat; may also be used in the creation of certain types of soap and other chemicals

steatis

A disease in which the fat becomes inflamed; also called yellow fat disease

stenosis

The act of making an opening narrower.

stenotic nares

Nostrils that are narrow or have been narrowed

stent

A device that can be implanted into a blood vessel to keep it from collapsing

sternum

The word for the bone at the front of the rib cage; may also be referred to as the breast bone.

steroid

The term for a type of medication that impacts immunity, metabolism, sexual characteristics, and other such elements of a living thing

sterol

One of the members of a group of alcohols, such as cholesterol

stifle

The term for the joint between the femur and tibia (knee cap)

stimulus

Anything that produces an action or reaction

stockinet

A type of cloth that is used during or after surgery as a type of bandage

stoma

A mouth; an opening

stomatitis

A medical condition in which the mouth becomes inflamed

stool

The material that comes out at the end of the digestive process; waste or feces

strabismus

A medical condition in which one or both of the eyes are deviated from one another

straightbred

The term used to indicate an animal whose ancestry is noted and can be closely followed; thoroughbred

stranguria

A medical condition in which urination is slow or painful

streptococci

A type of round-shaped bacteria that creates twisted chains

striate

The quality of having grooves or ridges of color

striated

Striped in color or texture

stricture

A band of tissue that makes a passage narrower

strictus

Something that is erect

stride

The distance between impressions on the ground of the same foot

strobila

The adult tapeworm

stroma

The tissue that supports any given organ

stupefacient

A type of drug that is used to temporarily paralyze an animal so they can be caught

subacute

A type of condition that falls in between acute and chronic

subclavian

Term denotes something that is found beneath the collar bone

subclinical

Does not show any signs of a disease

subcutaneous

Found underneath the dermis

subcutis

Found beneath the skin

subdural hematoma

A collection of blood beneath the dura mater and on top of the arachnoid membrane

subdural space

The space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane

sublethal

Something that is slightly less than fatal in its effects

sublingual

Implies that something is underneath the tongue

subluxation

The displacement of the bone from its joint

submandibular

Underneath the lower part of the jaw

submaxillary

Underneath the upper part of the jaw

succus

Any type of juice or fluid that comes from an organism

suet

A type of fat that comes from the abdomen of a ruminant animal

sulcus

A fissure or groove

supernumerary teats

A condition in which more than the standard number of nipples are found on an animal

superovulation

A condition in which more than the normal number of ovulations take place during a single cycle; may be due to the administration of hormones

supination

The act of rotating something so that it is facing up

supine

Facing up; prostrate

supplemental pasture

A pasture that is used during emergencies or to augment the use of an existing pasture

suppuration

The process in which pus is formed

suppurative

Something in which pus is discharged or formed

surcingle

A strap that goes around a horse or other such animal; used to help hold a load

surfactant

Any liquid that helps to release the surface tension on the lungs

sweat gland

The gland that is known to produce and secrete sweat

symbiosis

A relationship between two organisms in which the relationship benefits both parties

symbiotic relationship

A type of relationship in which both parties are benefited

sympathetic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that allows the body to react to a stressful situation

symphysis

A part where two bones are held together and can work together as one bone

syncope

Fainting; the respiratory and circulatory systems are suspended for a time

synergist

Indicates things that are able to work together

syngamy

The process that occurs when two gametes come together

synovial joint

A type of joint that is able to move

synovitis

A medical condition in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed

synthetic

Something that is artificially created

syrinx

The term used to refer to a bird’s voice organ

systemic

Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ

systemic circulation

The flow of blood to the whole body

systole

The term used to refer to contraction of the ventricles of the heart