breed

M

macrocephaly

The term for a skull that is larger than normal

macrocytic

The term for a larger cell

macrophage

The term for a large cell that destroys things by eating them

macroscopic

Something that can be seen by the human eye without the use of a microscope

macula

An area in the middle of the retina that is yellow and depressed; may also be referred to as a fovea or macula lutea

macular degeneration

A medical condition in which vision loss occurs in the middle of the eye

macule

A lesion that is less than a single centimeter across; usually flat

maggot

The young of a fly; tends to be found in dead tissue or decaying tissue

malabsorption

The impairment of nutrient intake into the intestines

malaise

General discomfort of the body

malformation

Any growth or organ on an animal that is not normal

malignant

Something that becomes worse or life threatening as it spreads

malnutrition

A condition of poor health that results from poor feeding or no feeding at all

malocclusion

A condition in which the teeth do not connect properly

malpresentation

The positioning of a fetus in an improper way before birth

mammary glands

The glands in female animals that are used to produce milk; also called the udder or breast

mammary system

The entire system involved with the production of milk in female animals, including the udder, teats, and inclusive blood vessels

mammary vein

The term for the veins that are near the udder of dairy cows; they are located just beneath the surface of the skin on the belly of the cow

mammoplasty

The term for the repair of the mammary glands by surgical means

mandible

The term for the lower jaw bone; this is the only bone in the skull that has the ability to move

mane

The long hair at the back of the neck on a horse

mange

The term for a disease of the skin caused by certain mites

manubrium

The end of the sternum at the cranial point

mare

The term for a female horse over the age of four that has not been sterilized

marrow

The term for the fatty tissue that is found inside most bones

mastectomy

The surgical removal of the breasts or mammary glands in an animal

mastitis

An infection of the udder; may be infectious or not

matroclinous

Something that has to do with an animal resembling its male parent.

maxilla

The term for the upper bone of the jaw

meatus

Any opening

mechanical manipulation

The collection of semen for the purpose of breeding

meconium

The term for the stool of a newborn that collects inside the fetus’ intestines

medial canthus

The corner of the eye by the nose

mediastinum

The area in the thorax between the two lungs, where the heart, esophagus, aorta, bronchials, and thymus are located.

medulla

The inside part or region of something

medulla oblongata

The part of the brain stem that has control over the basic functions of life

medullary cavity

The inside part of the longer bones in the shaft

megacolon

The term for a colon that is enlarged abnormally

megaesophagus

The term for an esophagus that is enlarged abnormally

megakaryocyte

The term for a nucleated cell that has formed platelets

meibomian glands

The organs on the eyelids; may also be referred to as tarsal glands

meiosis

The division of sex cells in which each cell receives half the chromosomes

melanin

The term for the dark pigment in the cells of skin and hair

melanocyte

The term for the cells that contain melanin

melena

The term for black feces that has blood in it

menadione

Vitamin K3; this vitamin is essential for the control of bleeding

meninges

The term for the connective tissue around the brain and spine

meningitis

A medical condition in which the meninges becomes inflamed

meningocele

A medical condition in which the meninges protrudes from the skull or vertebrae

meniscus

The curved cartilage that is located inside some of the synovial joints in the body

mesencephalon

The part of the brain in the middle

mesentery

The part of the peritoneum that holds the parts of the intestines inside the abdomen

mesial contact surface

The part of the tooth surface that is closest to the middle

mesoderm

The middle part of the embryo

mesophiles

The various parasites and bacteria that grow at body temperature

metabolic

The chemical changes that occur inside the living cells of plants and animals

metabolism

The group of processes that involve the use of nutrients by the body

metamorphosis

The processes in which an organism changes from one form to another, like an insect does

metanephric

A kidney that resembles an embryo

metaphase

The phase in the division of cells where the chromosomes are arranged in a plane

metaplasia

The transformation of a mature tissue into another type of mature tissue

metastasis

The growth of pathogens away from the original site of the disease

metastasize

The occurrence or invasion of pathogens away from the point where they originally occurred

metatarsals

The term for the bones away from the tarsus and near the phalanges

metencephalon

The part of the brain including the pons and cerebellum

methane

A colorless gas with no odor; can be volatile in a certain environment and is often the product of the decomposition of waste and other products

methionine

An amino acid that contains sulfur

metritis

A condition in which the uterus becomes inflamed

microbes

The term for plant life or animal life that is microscopic

microbiologist

The term for a scientist that deals with the study of plant life and animal life in microscopic sizes

microcephaly

The term for a skull that is small and abnormally so

microcytic

The term for a very small cell

microorganism

The term for an organism that is alive but is microscopic in size

microphthalmia

The term for eyes that are strangely small

micropyle

The opening in an ovule where sperm enters

micturition

The excretion of urine

midbrain

The part of the brain stem that runs from the cerebrum to the pons

milt

A gland near the stomach of some fowl birds that helps to form new blood cells

miotic agent

Any substance that is utilized for the purpose of constricting pupils

mites

Any type of arachnid excluding ticks

miticide

Any type of poison that is used in the killing of mites

mitosis

The division of cells in which each cell has the full amount of chromosomes

mitral valve

The fold of membrane found between the left atrium and left ventricle

molar

The cheek teeth of an animal

molt

The action of shedding old feathers or horns before new ones come in

molting

The act of interrupting the laying of eggs

monestrous

The property of having only one heat cycle in a season

mongrel

The term for an animal of mixed breed

monochromatism

The inability to distinguish certain colors from one another; color blindness

monocyte

A type of leukocyte with phagocytic abilities

monocytopenia

The act of decreasing the number of monocytic leukocytes in an animal’s bloodstream.

monocytosis

The increase of numbers of leukocytes in the blood

monofilament

A strand of material that is singular

monogamous

The quality of being able to pair with a single mate

monogastric

The term for an animal with a single stomach compartment

monohybrid

A type of hybrid in which the parents only have one difference in character

monophagia

The act of eating only one meal per day or only one single type of food

monoplegia

The quality of having one limb paralyzed

monorchid

A type of animal who has only had a single testicle descend into its scrotum

monovalent

A type of vaccine that has been created just for a single type of organism or antigen

morphogenesis

The history of certain organisms or their various parts

mouthing

The act of determining an animal’s age by looking at its teeth

mucoid

Something that bears a resemblance to mucus

mucolytic

The breaking down of mucus

mucopurulent

Something that contains mucus and/or pus

mucous membrane

A special type of tissue that exudes mucus

mucus

A type of slime that is made up of certain salts, cells, or leukocytes

multifilament

The term for something with multiple strands that is entwined together

multiparous

The term for an animal that has given birth on more than one occasion

murine

The term for mice and rat-like rodents

mustang

The term for a wild horse that has descended from a type of Spanish horse

mutagen

The term for a type of agent that works with DNA to create a change in the makeup of a cell

mutagenic

Something that is able to change genetic abnormalities

mutant

A different type of something; a type of offspring that is different from its parents and others like it

mutualism

The term for the relationship between two organisms that depends upon one another

muzzle

The term for the nostrils and muscles in the upper and lower lips of an animal; may also be used to describe a type of tool used to keep an animal from biting

myasthenia

The term for weakness of the muscles

mycology

The study of fungus

mycosis

A type of disease that is created by the presence of fungus in living things

mycotic disease

Any type of disease that is created by a fungus

mycotoxins

A type of chemical that is created by fungus; it may calls illness or death when eaten

myelin

A type of covering over certain nerve cells; may be found in areas of the spinal cord or on the brain’s white matter

myelitis

An inflammation of the bone marrow or spinal cord

myelogram

A picture that is taken of the spinal cord after dye is injected; may also be used to take a count of white blood cells

myelography

The study of the spine after dye has been injected

myeloma

A type of tumor made up of certain cells in the bone marrow

myelopathy

A disease of the bone marrow or of the spine

myiasis

The larvae of flies in tissue

myocarditis

The inflammation of myocardium

myocardium

The term for the thickest layer of the heart muscle

myoclonus

The contraction of the muscles in the skeleton

myometrium

The layer of the uterus made up of muscles

myoparesis

Weakness of the muscles

myopathy

A condition of the muscles in which they are diseased

myoplasty

The removal of muscles by surgery

myosarcoma

The neoplasm that is made up of certain muscles

myositis

A medical condition in which muscles become inflamed

myotomy

An incision that is made into a muscle

myotonia

The relaxation of muscles that is delayed after they have contracted

myringectomy

The removal of part of the ear drum by surgery

myringitis

A medical condition that results from the ear drum becoming inflamed

myxoma

A type of tumor that is made up of connective tissues