breed

B

babcock test

A test developed by S.M. Babcock in the late 1800s; tests the fat in milk by spinning it in a specialized manner with sulfuric acid.

bacillus

A term used to describe a type of bacteria that is shaped like a rod.

backcross method

The breeding of females to a male of the same breed as the female’s parents.

bacteremia

A disease that occurs when bacteria present in the blood.

bactericide

Any substance known to kill bacteria.

bacteriolysis

The dissolution of bacteria on the animal’s body, whether inside or outside the body.

bacteriophage

An agent that is known to destroy bacteria; it is only active in the presence of bacteria that is susceptible to damage that it can cause.

bacteriostat

Any compound that is known to slow down or kill the growth of particular types of bacteria.

bacterium

The singular form of the word bacteria; a tiny, microscopic organism only made up of one cell.

bacteriuria

A medical condition that indicates the presence of bacteria in an animal’s urine.

bad mouth

A term used to refer to a dental condition in animals in which the bottom teeth and the top teeth do not come together.

balanced ratio

The amount of feed given to livestock or animals; designed to promote healthy development in animals.

bald face

A white marking on the face of an animal that covers both of the eyes and both of the nostrils.

baldy

A term used to refer to an animal that lacks hair or feathers on top or lacks horns.

balk

A term used to indicate what happens when an animal stops movement suddenly.

ball and socket joint

A type of joint that allows for free movement in all directions. May also be referred to as enarthrosis.

balling gun

A piece of equipment used in giving pills to livestock or applying magnets.

ballottement

A technique used to diagnose pregnancy or determine the contents of an animal’s abdomen; involves tapping the wall of the abdomen to bounce a structure against the other wall.

banding

a) In equine terms, a method of styling a mane into sections with rubber bands b) Marking an animal (e.g. a bird) by fastening a band to a part of their body. c) A method used to castrate animals in which a rubber band is placed on the scrotum, causing the testicles to atrophy.

bar pad

Also called bar shoe; a type of horse shoe that helps to keep a horse from slipping.

barbering

A disorder in which animals bite the fur of subordinate animals as a method of establishing dominance.

bareback

a) The method of riding a horse with no saddle. b) In poultry terms, used to denote a chicken that does not have feathers across its back

barium sulfate

Commonly referred to simply as barium, may be used as a material for contrast injections.

barn book

A book of records that includes livestock data, including special dates, weights, and other data.

barny

A slang term often used to describe dairy products that have a flavor inconsistent with what is normally preferred.

barnyard

The land that is connected to the barn; may be fenced in to enclose animals.

barred

Used to describe a feather pattern in chickens; alternating stripes of dark and light feathers.

barren

Refers to an animal not being able to reproduce.

barren mare

Term used to refer to a female horse that is intact but has yet to become pregnant after multiple breeding seasons.

barrier sustained

Term used to indict certain animals that are kept under highly sterilized conditions in a unit of barriers.

barrow

a) Term used to indicate a male pig that was neutered shortly after birth. b) A term used to describe the action of only partly shearing a sheep.

basal feed

Any feed that is given to a horse mainly for the energy it can give and not usually for other nutritional benefits.

basal metabolism

The minimum amount of energy require to perform vital bodily functions and cellular activity while at complete rest otherwise.

base narrow

Term used to indicate a horse that is standing with their feet close together.

base wide

Term used to indicate a horse that is standing with their feet far apart from one another, in a wide stance.

battery

A row of cages used to raise chickens with no hen present, usually for market purposes like meat and eggs.

bay roan

Term used to describe a horse whose coat is colored brown with specks or spots of gray in it.

bearing rein

The rein that presses up on the horse’s neck to get them to turn in a particular way.

beget

To reproduce or procreate; to father.

bellwether

A term use to indicate a castrate male sheep that is used as a flock leader; they usually wear a bell around their neck.

benign

Not being able to cause harm; the opposite of malignant.

biceps

Any muscle that has two heads.

bicolor

The quality of having two colors

bicornuate

The quality of having two horns.

bidentate

The quality of having two teeth.

bifurcation

The division of something one time.

bilateral

Having two sides

bilateral symmetry

The quality of being the same on both of two sides.

bile

The fluid created by the liver that helps food in the stomach to be digested.

bilirubin

A certain pigment that is produced when hemoglobin is destroyed.

billy goat

A slang term use to describe a young male goat; the correct term for this is buck.

binomial

The term used to describe the two Latin names given to all plants and animals.

bioaccumulation

The idea that substances collect in an animal’s system and although they may remain immune to their effects there are other species that can be negatively affected by its presence in their environment.

biohazard

Anything that can cause harm to life.

biologist

Anybody who studies life and living things.

biophages

Certain living things that sustain themselves through other life, like a pathogen or parasite.

biopsy

The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.

biotechnology

The branch of technology that deals with applying biology and engineering to the study of plants and animals.

biotic potential

The most that an animal will ever be able to reproduce when given all opportunity.

bipolar

Having two completely different ends.

birth weight

The weight of a newborn animal after it has been in the world for a full 24 hours.

bishoping

Term named after a horse dealer known for reshaping a horse’s teeth in order to make it look younger and bring a higher profit.

bitch

A female dog that has not been spayed.

bitting

Teaching a horse to obey the bit before they are ready to be used for riding.

black roan

A horse with a black and white coat.

blacksmith

A professional who creates items out of iron and certain metals.

blepharectomy

The process of removing a portion or the entire eyelid through surgical methods.

blepharitis

A condition in which an animal’s eyelid becomes inflamed.

blepharoplasty

The repair of an eyelid through surgery.

blepharoptosis

A condition in which the upper eyelid is droopy

blepharorrhaphy

The suturing of the eyelids together.

blepharospasm

A condition of an animal involving involuntary spasms of the eyelid.

blepharotomy

A cut or incision in an animal’s eyelid

blind quarter

A part of an udder that does not properly lactate or has some type of blockage in the teat.

blind teat

A teat that fails to properly produce milk; may not be connected to the gland properly.

blinders

Small pieces of leather that are hooked to a bridal that can prevent a horse from seeing anything that is not in front of them.

blindness

The inability to see anything

blissom

The term used for a female sheep that is in heat.

blistering

The process of putting something irritation onto a blemish in order to get it to go away.

blocky foot

A horse with a deeper slop to his hoof than would normally be noticeable.

blood horse

Any horse that has been purely bred.

blood pressure

The amount of pressure applied by the blood on the arteries.

bloodline

The term referring to the various lines of breeding within the family.

bloody milk

Milk that is secreted from an animal with damaged gland tissues or broken blood vessels.

bloom

A term used to denote a shiny coat on a horse.

blow-out

The process of walking to loosen up or warm up muscles to prevent injury; to warm up.

blue roan

Term used to refer to a horse with a black coat with white specks; the white specks give the appearance of a blue coat.

blue-gray

A horse that has gray hairs and a gray coat.

bluebag

A type of mastitis that is gangrenous in nature ; it causes a bluish tint to the udder.

bobtail

The term used for an animal with a short tail or whose tail has been docked.

bog spavin

A condition in which a horse’s joints become distended due to extra fluid on the inside of the hock.

bolster

The lower part of a saddle that is padded.

bone

The skeleton that frames the body of an animal or person.

bone meal

The product that is crated when bones are ground and dried.

bone plate

A piece of metal that is used to repair bones when they have become fractured.

bone screw

The screws that are used to press fragments together with bone plates in order to fix a fracture.

bone spavin

A bump in a horse’s hock that can cause lameness.

boning

The process of making the leg appear thicker by causing the hair to stand out on the thigh; used to make beef appear more appealing for meat.

borborygmus

The movement of gas in the gut that causes noise.

bos indicus

The term used to indicate a type of humped cattle found in some countries.

bos taurus

The scientific term used to denote a type of cattle that is found in certain areas.

bougie

A type of tool used to insert into a bodily crevice for medical reasons, such as dilation or to administer a type of medication.

bovine

A term used to describe anything related to cattle.

bovine somatotropin (bst)

A hormone that helps to stimulate lactation in cows; it is produced naturally.

bowman’s capsule

The name for the part of the kidney that has the glamorous.

box stall

A type of stall in which a horse can move about with ease.

boxlock

Any joint on an instrument with rings that can move about freely.

brace

a) An instrument designed to provide some type of support. b) Two of something; a pair

brace bandage

A type of bandage worn by horses that is designed to provide support

brachial

Referring to the arm

brachial plexus

A group of nerves found in an animal’s front limbs.

brachium

The last part of the front legs between the shoulder and the elbow.

brachycephalic

An animal with a wide head, short in stature.

brachydont

A tooth that is permanently rooted.

bradford system

A system used to spin wool in the United States.

bradycardia

A particularly slow beating heart.

bradypnea

A particularly slow breathing rate.

brain stem

The part of the brain that contains the medulla oblongata and other vital portions of the brain.

braining

A method of slaughtering fowl in which a knife is pushed through the roof of the mouth to pierce the medulla oblongata and cause death.

branch

A stem that comes out from a larger stem.

brand book

A record of brands that are used to identify types of cattle.

brawn

Muscle, usually in the arm or leg

bray

The term used to describe the way that a donkey or mule cries; the term used to describe the noise that they make.

breast collar

A strap that goes across the chest of a horse; may also be referred to as a breast band.

breastbone

An animal’s sternum

breathy

A term used to describe any animal that can pass through a fence

bred heifer

A pregnant cow; a young cow who has yet to give birth but is with calf.

breech

a) A direction for a calf to be facing that may cause birth problems b) The rear end of an animal, between the bottom of the tail and the top of the hocks. c) A type of wool that comes from a sheep’s back legs.

breeching

The portion of the harness that goes around a horse’s bottom.

breed association

A type of organization whose goal is to hold dear the pure blood lines of a particular breed, usually of livestock or poultry. This group is the one to set and maintain the requirements to be associated.

breed character

The details of the appearance of an animal, as in horn shape, ear shape, etc.

breeder tom

A male turkey whose only goal is to breed.

breeding chute

Also referred to as the breeding rack or breeding crate; a confinement build to assist a female animal in the act of mating.

breeding class

Certain animals whose sole purpose in life is to aid in breeding.

breeding herd

The name for a portion of any flock that is kept around just for the purpose of building the herd through mating and birthing.

breeding hobbles

A type of weight that is applied to a mare’s foot to prevent her from kicking the stallion who is trying to mate with her.

breeding house

a) A group of large pens that are used to breed certain types of poultry. b) Any building that is used solely for the purpose of breeding.

breeding season

The time of year when certain animals are inclined to mate and have young.

breeding unsoundness

Some type of imperfection that prevents an animal from being fit to breed.

breeding value

The maximum potential that an animal has as far as its potential profit in terms of meat, eggs, milk, or other goods useful to people; may also refer to their ability to mate and birth and nurse young.

breedy

Cows that are exceptionally fit for breeding; I.e. very feminine cows and masculine bulls.

bridle

a) A part of a horse harness that holds the bit and reins together. b) A rope with hooks at both ends.

bridle wise

A term used to refer to a horse that is well trained with using the bridle.

bright bay

A horse that is known for a glossy coat, usually lighter in color.

brindle

A type of animal who has a type of tawny or brown coat, usually streaked or spotted.

bring forth

To give birth to or bring up

brisket

A group of tissues and fat that cover a certain part of the chest and between the front legs of an animal.

bristle

Something with stiff hairs or hair like pieces on a plant or animal.

broad-spectrum

a) A type of antibiotic that kills both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.b) A type of pesticide that is known to kill a whole variety of insects but also tends to affect other wildlife as well.

broiler

The term used to refer to a particularly young chicken usually between 8 and 12 weeks of age.

broken crest

A condition of a horse hanging his head; a heavier neck that may bend down or fall to one side.

broken ear

A gap in the cartilage in the ear of a rabbit; called lop ear to some. A broken ear likely prevents the rabbit from holding its ear properly.

broken wind

A respiratory disease that affects older horses; lungs cells are dilated and it is an inheritable condition.

bronc

A horse who has not been broken; a wild horse.

bronchodilator

Anything that is used to expand the bronchial tubes.

bronchopneumonia

A condition of the lungs and bronchi in which they become inflamed and congested.

bronchoscope

A tool used to look into the trachea and bronchi.

bronchospasm

A contraction of the bronchi, usually involuntary.

broncoscopy

The act of examining the trachea and bronchi with a bronchoscope.

brood hen

A hen whose sole purpose is to sit atop eggs and let them incubate to raise the young.

brood mare

A female horse that is only required to mate and raise young.

brood sow

A female pig that is only required to mate and raise young.

brooder

A structure that houses young or is used for mating or brooding.

brooder house

An enclose that is designed for young to be raised with no mother.

broodiness

A term used to refer to a hen that is content with always sitting on eggs and nothing else; may also be used to refer to other animals that are anxious to mate and reproduce and raise young.

brooding

The act of raising chicks in a safe environment.

broody

A term used to describe an animal that gives good signs of being fit for breeding.

broody coop

A structure used to house a hen who is brooding in order to make her more inclined to produce eggs.

brow band

The section of the bridle that is designed to fasten around the horse’s forehead area.

brown-ticked gray

Used to describe a horse’s coat; a gray horse with tiny brown spots scattered across it.

bruxism

The tendency for an animal to grit its teeth.

buccal surface

The part of the tooth that faces the inside of the cheek.

buck

a) A male rabbit b) A male goat c)The term used for wool taken from a ram d)An action performed by a horse; with the head held down the back legs are kicked up as a sort of low leap.

buck herd

Any group of rams

bucked knees

Term used to refer to an animal whose normal stance is knees bent out.

buckeyed

Term used to describe a horse with an eye disorder in which the cornea appears to stick out further beyond the eyelids than normal. These horses normally have vision problems.

bucking chute

A stall that is used for ease in saddling broncos.

buckling

Term used to refer to a male goat between one and two years old.

buckskin

a) A horse with a gray brown coat b)The skin taken from a male deer c)Any horse with a brown coat and black mane and tail

buffer

a) Animals positioned to make game less of a desire by serving as food for those who might attack game. b)Any tool that is used to help remove horse shoe nails by cutting the clinch c) A group of chemicals that can resist the affects of shifts in PH in the environment.

bulk bin

The term usually reserved for the large vat that feed is stored in. It is stored through a funnel from a truck or mill and is fed into troughs through another type of auger.

bull pen

A wooden pen that is used to hold bulls.

bulling

The action of showing signs that they are ready to mate.

bullock

A bull that has been neutered.

bunker silo

A tall structure used to store silage.

bunodont

Term used to refer to those animals with teeth that are more round than sharp

buphthalmos

A condition characterized by an abnormally large eye.

burro

A term for a donkey or ass

burry

Term used to describe wool that has a great deal of seeds, burrs, or other debris in it.

bursa

A pouch of fluid that eases the pain of movement in certain areas.

bursitis

The condition that results when bursa become inflamed.

buster

A person who trains horses.

butcher run

A random group of rabbits who are bought for the purpose of slaughter.

butler

The term used to describe a female cow that is in heat for a long time but has yet to become pregnant.

butterfat

The fat that can be found in milk

buttermilk horse

A horse with a red to blue colored coat.

by-pass protein

Any protein that is treated so as to not be changed in the ruminant stomach of animal.

by-product

Any product that is derived from but less in value than another product from the same source.