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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in Dogs

Shock Lung in Dogs

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) refers to a condition of sudden respiratory failure due to fluid accumulation and severe inflammation in the lungs. ARDS is a life-threatening problem, with current mortality rates in dogs at almost 100 percent. This condition is also medically referred to as shock lung, as it occurs following an episode which leads to a state of shock, such as traumatic injury. As typified by a syndrome, ARDS is indicative of an underlying medical condition, usually an injurious event that has allowed blood, fluid and tissue to cross over the barrier and into the alveoli, the air cells in the lungs, causing them to collapse. Once the alveoli have been compromised in this way, breathing becomes labored, and eventually impossible if not treated with haste.

In humans there appears to be a genetic factor for the development of ARDS, but this factor has not yet been investigated in dogs.

Symptoms and Types

Acute respiratory distress syndrome can occur in a number of conditions and with varying symptoms, depending upon the underlying cause. Following are some general symptoms seen with ARDS:

  • Extreme efforts to breath
  • Cough
  • Discharge from nostrils
  • Fever
  • Cyanosis (blue discoloration of skin)
  • Other signs related to underlying disease

Causes

Following are a few of the major causes of ARDS in dogs:

  • Pneumonia
  • Inhalation of smoke and noxious gases
  • Near drowning
  • Thermal burns
  • Aspiration of gastric contents
  • Serious infections of the lungs or bloodstream
  • Lung injury due to trauma
  • Other serious illness

Diagnosis

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. Your veterinarian will evaluate your dog's condition and start emergency treatment at once. You will need to provide your veterinarian with a thorough history of your dog's health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have preceded this condition, such as trauma to any part of the body, or inhalation of gases, fumes, or solid matter. Along with the emergency treatment your veterinarian will work to find the underlying cause for the sudden lung failure. Various laboratory test panels will be ordered, including blood tests, serum biochemical tests, urine tests and blood gas analysis. Blood gas analysis is one of the most important diagnostic methods used in veterinary practice for the diagnosis of ARDS. Your veterinarian will also order chest X-rays and echocardiography in order to visually examine and evaluate the functioning capability of the lungs and heart.

 
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