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Testicular Tumor (Leydig Cell) in Cats

Tumor of the Interstitial Cell of the Testicle in Cats

The Leydig cell tumor (LCT) is a rare and typically benign tumor that affects older male animals. These tumors are located in the testis and are made up from the cells that release the testosterone hormone into the connective tissue of the testicles. This type of tumor may occur singularly, or in multiples, measuring about 1-2 cm in diameter and spherical in shape. LCTs can be felt as a mass, causing soft swelling of the affected testis. It is classified as a sex-cord stromal tumor, meaning that the tumor issues from the connective tissues of the sex-cords of the testis. This disease is relatively rare in cats.

Symptoms and Types

  • One or more round masses (1-2 cm in diameter) in a testicle
  • There are generally no symptoms with this type of tumor, unless it is actually a Sertoli cell tumor (cells which help nourish spermatids as they transform into spermatozoa in the testicles)
  • Signs of a Sertoli cell tumor:
    • Feminization (from secretion of estrogen)
    • Bone marrow underdevelopment

Causes

The cause of LCT is unknown, but a retained testicle (usually in the abdomen) may predispose cats to Leydig cell tumor formation.

Diagnosis

Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical exam, palpating (examination by touch) your cat's testicles to examine the size, location, and consistency of the tumor. You will need to provide a thorough history of your cat's health, with a description of symptoms, if any, and their time of onset. Usually a blood chemical profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis will return as normal, but there may be various reductions of cells in the circulating blood if there is an excess of estrogen. Blood serum should also be tested for estradiol, an estrogenic hormone, and testosterone concentrations. Usually estradiol levels will be high, while testosterone levels will be low. Your veterinarian may also take a fine needle sample of fluid (aspirate) from the tumor to check for abnormalities in the cells, by use of a cytological (microscopic) examination

Tumors smaller than 3 cm in diameter will appear black on ultrasound imaging. However, tumors greater than 5 cm have a black and white blotched appearance on ultrasound.

 
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