A. This can be a very frustrating problem to deal with. I'd be really interested to know what your vet has recommended, otherwise I'm possibly going to be recommending things you've already tried, but I'll give you some thoughts.
If she hasn't been examined thoroughly for hip pain, that's a good place to start. Cats will often avoid the litter box when they associate it with pain, and if squatting in the litter box causes pain they'll try someplace else. She should also be checked thoroughly for anal gland issues. Also with hind end pain sometimes it's difficult for them to jump into the box, so cutting a small door into the litter box and using something larger like an under-the-bed storage box may help as well.
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