A. Well if he was neutered and that's why he has no testicles then there are few health risks associated with this. In fact neutering pets will help diminish the health risks like prostatis, mammary cancer and testicular cancer.
However if you pet's is intact (never neutered) and the testicles never dropped, then there are possible health problems, which are pretty much the same ones I mentioned above. Unfortunately at the age of 15 years old, I would not recommend neutering at this point unless there was a medical urgency to do so. The surgery itself is a potential risk for older pets with possible underlying issues or slow processing organs (due to old age).
A. If you are sure he has never been castrated - it means his testicles never descended. It is true that when the testicles are not descended there is a very high risk of testicular cancer inside the abdomen which will probably spread to other organs.
The solution is simple - get him neutered. If the testicles are in the inguinal canal it will be an easier surgery, but even if they are abdominal -it's still not a very complicated surgery.
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