A. No, to get a good dental cleaning you need anesthesia. You also should get x-rays done at the same time to determine any underlying teeth issues that you cannot see by just looking at them. 60% of the tooth is under the gum so you can only see 40% with your naked eye. As long as your dog is healthy and you find a good vet that employs certified technicians, anesthesia should be no problem. Bloodwork would be a start and make sure that IV fluids are given while under anesthesia. Old age is not a disease and does not mean anesthesia is less or more risky.
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