A. It is most likely to be fleas. I would recommend treating with a good quality flea product from your vet such as frontline plus, advocate or revolution. These are much more effective than the over the counter ones. If you have done this and the itching continues then you need to consider allergies. Blood tests and skin tests can be done to find out exactly what your dog is allergic to. It is expensive but it is the 'gold standard' way to establish the cause of the allergy. Food trials can be done but this is a longer process and you may be paying out for many different food types and may still not get anywhere especially if the allergy is due to a grass or dust mites that are in the house or garden.
It could also be pain related. If there is one area in particular that he bites or licks constantly you can't rule out pain which will need an examination with your vet to establish the cause of the pain so that it can be treated appropriately.
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